Retrieved August 15, ARIA Charts. Australian Recording Industry Association. Disque Queen France in French. Archived from the original on April 19, InfoDisc in French. Retrieved August 22, Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Official Charts Company. November 13, British Phonographic Industry. Archived from the original on January 17, Archived from the original on September 6, Argentine Chamber of Phonograms and Videograms Producers. Archived from the original on July 6, Retrieved October 7, Nederlandse Vereniging van Producenten en Importeurs van beeld- en geluidsdragers.
Swiss Music Charts. International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. TF1 Group. Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved August 6, Retrieved May 16, Archived from the original on January 4, Retrieved March 11, Rainbow Liner Notes Compact Disc. Retrieved October 14, Ekstra Bladet in Danish. November 14, November 27, GfK Entertainment Charts.
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Encyclopedia of Popular Music. MTV Asia. Carey Foster. Carey Briggs. Carey DJ Clue Ifill. Carey Jam Lewis. He also discusses other phenomena related to rainbows: the mysterious "virgae" rodshalos and parhelia. In his Maqala fi al-Hala wa Qaws Quzah On the Rainbow and Haloal-Haytham "explained the formation of rainbow as an image, which forms at a concave mirror. If the rays of light coming from a farther light source reflect to any point on axis of the concave mirror, they form concentric circles in Rainbow point.
When it is supposed that the sun as a farther light source, the eye of viewer as a point on the axis of mirror and a cloud as a reflecting surface, then it can be observed the concentric circles are forming on the axis. The cloud, he thought, serves simply as the background of this thin substance, much as a quicksilver lining is placed upon the rear surface of the glass in a mirror.
In Song Dynasty China —a polymath scholar-official named Shen Kuo — hypothesised—as a certain Sun Sikong — did before him—that rainbows were formed by a phenomenon of sunlight encountering droplets of rain in the air. According to Nader El-Bizri, the Persian RainbowQutb al-Din al-Shirazi —gave a fairly accurate explanation for the rainbow phenomenon. He "proposed a model where the ray of light from the sun was refracted twice by a water droplet, one or more reflections occurring between the two refractions.
He then placed this model within a camera obscura that has a controlled aperture for the introduction of light.
He projected light unto the sphere and ultimately deduced through several trials and detailed observations of reflections and refractions of light that the colours of the rainbow are phenomena of the decomposition of light.
His work on light was continued by Roger Baconwho wrote in his Opus Majus of about experiments with light shining through crystals and water droplets showing the colours of the rainbow. He explained the primary rainbow, noting that "when sunlight falls on individual drops of moisture, the rays undergo two refractions upon ingress and egress and one reflection at the back of the drop before transmission into the eye of the observer.
Descartes ' treatise, Discourse on Methodfurther advanced this explanation. Knowing that the size of raindrops did not appear to affect the observed rainbow, he experimented with passing rays of light through a large glass sphere filled with water. By measuring the angles that the rays emerged, he concluded that the primary bow was caused by a single internal reflection inside the raindrop and that a secondary bow could be caused by two internal reflections.
He supported this conclusion with a derivation of the law of refraction subsequently to, but independently of, Snell and correctly calculated the angles for both bows. His explanation of the colours, however, was based on a mechanical version of the traditional theory that colours were produced by a modification of white light. Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light was composed of the light of all the colours of the rainbow, which a glass prism could separate into the full spectrum of colours, rejecting the theory that the colours were produced by a modification of white light.
He also showed that red light is refracted less than blue light, which led to the first scientific explanation of the major features of the rainbow. Young's work was refined in the s by George Biddell Airywho explained the dependence of the strength of the colours of the rainbow on the size of the water droplets. For example, Nussenzveig provides a modern overview. Experiments on the rainbow phenomenon using artificial raindrops, i.
Later, also Descartes studied the phenomenon using a Florence flask. A flask experiment known as Florence's rainbow is still often used today as an imposing and intuitively accessible demonstration experiment of the rainbow phenomenon. Due to the finite wall thickness and the macroscopic character of the artificial raindrop, several subtle differences exist as compared to the natural phenomenon,   including slightly changed rainbow angles and a splitting of the rainbow orders.
A very similar experiment consists in using a cylindrical glass vessel filled with water or a solid transparent cylinder and illuminated either parallel to the circular base i. Under these latter conditions the rainbow angles change relative to the natural phenomenon since the effective index of refraction of water changes Bravais' index of refraction for inclined rays applies.
Other experiments use small liquid drops,   see text above. Rainbows occur frequently in mythologyand have been used in the arts. One of the earliest literary occurrences of a rainbow is in the Book of Genesis chapter 9, as part of the flood story of Noahwhere it is a sign of God's covenant to never destroy all life on earth with a global flood again.
Some forms of Tibetan Buddhism or Dzogchen reference a rainbow body. This place is appropriately impossible to reach, because the rainbow is an optical effect which cannot be approached. Rainbows appear in heraldry - in heraldry the rainbow proper consists of 4 bands of color OrGulesVertArgent with the ends resting on clouds.
Rainbow flags have been used for centuries. It was a symbol of Rainbow Cooperative movement in the German Peasants' War in the 16th century, of peace in Italy, and of gay pride and LGBT social movements since the s.
The rainbow has also been used in technology product logos, including the Apple computer logo. Many political alliances spanning multiple political parties have called themselves a " Rainbow Coalition ". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Rainbow disambiguation. Light rays enter a raindrop from one direction typically a straight line from the sunreflect off the back of the raindrop, and fan out as they leave the raindrop, Rainbow.
The light leaving the rainbow is spread over a wide angle, with a maximum intensity at the angles This diagram only shows the paths relevant to the rainbow. White light separates into different colours on entering the raindrop due to dispersion, causing red light to be refracted less than blue light.
For other uses, see Double Rainbow. Main article: Monochrome rainbow. Main article: Moonbow. Main article: Fog bow. Main article: Rainbows in culture. Jeff Masters Rainbow Site". Archived from the original on Mineola, New York: Dover Publications. The Ansel Adams Gallery. Archived from the original on May 25, Retrieved Archived from the original on May 28, Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 27 August Color and Meaning.
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Archived PDF from the original on 8 October Retrieved 13 June Raymond L. Applied Optics. ACM Transactions on Graphics. Astronomy Picture of the Day. Bibcode : ApOpt. Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. Journal of the Optical Society of America B. McConnel "The theory of fog-bows," Philosophical Magazineseries 5, 29 : — Lee; Alistair B. Fraser The rainbow bridge: rainbows in art, myth, and science. Penn State Press. Delphi Classics. November III: Ashgate Publishing. August 1, Florida State University.
Archived from the original on August 30, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Bibcode : BAMS In the lab, scientists have detected a th-order rainbow. A twinned rainbow is two distinct rainbows produced from a single endpoint. Twinned rainbows are the result of light hitting an air mass with different sizes and shapes of water droplets—usually a raincloud with different sizes and shapes of raindrops.
A supernumerary rainbow is a thin, pastel-colored arc usually appearing below the inner arch of a rainbow. Supernumeraries are the result of the complex interaction of light rays in an air mass with small, similarly sized water droplets. In supernumerary formation, reflected rays interact in ways called constructive and destructive interference. Light is either reinforce d constructive interference or canceled out destructive interference.
Interference is responsible for the lighter hues and narrower bands of supernumeraries. A reflection rainbow appears above a body of water. A primary rainbow is reflected by the water, and the reflected light produces a reflection rainbow.
Reflection rainbows do not mirror the primary rainbow—they often appear to stretch above it. A reflected rainbow appears directly on the surface of a body of water. A reflected rainbow is created by rays of light reflected by the water surface, after the rays have have passed through water droplets.
Reflected rainbows to not appear to form a circle with a primary rainbow, although their endpoints seem to meet in an almond-shaped formation. A red rainbow, also called a monochrome rainbow, usually appears at sunrise or sunset. During this time, sunlight travels further in the atmosphere, and shorter wavelengths blue and violet have been scattered.
Only the long-wavelength red colors are visible in this rainbow. A fogbow is formed in much the same way as a primary rainbow. Light in a fogbow is refracted and reflected by fog water droplets suspended in air. A fogbow seen in the clouds is called a cloud bow.
Because the water droplets in fog are much smaller than raindrops, fogbows have much fainter colors than rainbows. In fact, some fogbows have few detectable colors at all and appear mostly white, with a reddish tinge on their outer edge and a bluish tinge on their inner edge.
A moonbow, also called a lunar rainbow, is a rainbow produced by light reflected by the Moon. The Moon itself does not emit light, of course. Moonlight is reflected sunlight, as well as some starlight and " Earthlight.
Rainbows are part of the myth s of many cultures around the world. Rainbows are often portrayed as bridges between people and supernatural beings. In Norse mythologyfor instance, a rainbow called the Bifrost connects Earth with Asgard, where the gods live.
In the ancient beliefs of Japan and Gabon, rainbows were the bridges that human ancestor s took to descend to the planet. The shape of a rainbow also resembles the bow of an archer. Hindu culture teaches that the god Indra uses his rainbow bow to shoot arrows of lightning. Rainbows are usually positive symbols in myths and legends. In the Epic of Gilgamesh and, later, the Bible, the rainbow is a symbol from a deity the goddess Ishtar and the Hebrew God to never again destroy the Earth with floods.
Sometimes, however, rainbows are negative symbols. In parts of Burma, for instance, rainbows are considered demon s that threaten children. Tribes throughout the Amazon basin associate rainbows with disease. Perhaps the most famous piece of mythology surrounding rainbows is the Irish legend of the pot of gold at the end of a rainbow.
The gold is guarded by a tricky leprechaunbut—because no one sees Rainbow same rainbow and rainbows don't "end" they're circles —no one ever finds the gold or the magical creature. Rainbow flags usually appear as stripes bands of at least five different colors. Rainbow flags have long represented groups championing diversityrespect, and inclusive ness. The Wiphala is a type of rainbow flag. It is a symbol of communities indigenous to the Andes Mountains, stretching from modern-day Ecuador to Chile.
A Wiphala has been an official flag of Bolivia sincewhen the nation elected its first indigenous president, Evo Morales. The Wiphala features a diagonal patchwork design with squares in different rainbow colors.
Different arrangements of patchwork squares represent different Andean communities. The Buddhist flag, designed in the 19th century, is flown by Buddhist s around the world.
It is a vertical arrangement of six bands, each representing a different aspect of Buddhism, from kindness to moderation, blessings to wisdom. The Jewish Autonomous Oblast, a community on Russia's border with China, is represented by a seven-banded rainbow flag. The seven bands symbolize the seven branches of a menorah. The most familiar rainbow flag may be the banner representing the movement supporting civil rights for members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT community.
The different colors of the "LGBT pride" flag represent the diverse community itself, as well as different aspects associated with each color. Orange, for example, symbolizes health and healing, while green symbolizes nature.
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