The data generated were used to explore the human-infective potential of these two common gastrointestinal parasites in NHPs. A total of fecal specimens were collected in AprilJuneOctober and January from laboratory crab-eating macaques kept on a commercial farm. The cages were elevated 1 m from the ground so that the feces could fall onto the ground. Every monkey had contact with animals in the neighboring cages. The rooms were cleaned every morning and afternoon to ensure a clean living environment.
Feed, fruits apple, banana and peach and drinking water were regularly distributed by farm staff to each cage every day. The sampling plan took into consideration the number, age and sex of animals on the farm, and the needed number of positive specimens to generate data for a meaningful assessment of the distribution and human-infective potential of E.
Among the sampled animals, were male, were female and sampled animals had missing information on the sex. The sampled animals belonged to two age groups: were 1—3 years-old and were adult monkeys older than 3 years. Regarding the latter, as monkeys over 4 years-old were often sold, the Monkey Time 69 animals sampled in the study were 5 years-old.
At the time of sampling, monkeys had loose stools, as defined by runny fecal consistency, and monkeys were apparently normal. The specimens were stored in 2. The genotypes of E. The established genotype nomenclature was used in naming E. Giardia duodenalis was detected by nested PCR amplification of a bp fragment of the tpi gene, a bp fragment of the bg gene and a bp fragment of the gdh gene [ 484950 ].
The specimen was considered G. The genotypes of G. Nucleotide sequences generated were assembled and edited with software ChromasPro v. To explore genetic diversity within the assemblage B of G. The reliability of clusters formed was assessed by bootstrap analysis using replicates. Differences in E. Of the specimens analyzed, Altogether, Significantly higher detection rates of G. Nevertheless, detection rates of G. Among them, eight E.
Similarly, eight E. A similar distribution of E. Sequence analysis of PCR products from the tpibg and gdh genes showed that all G. Eight G. Seven G. Seven subtypes of G. Of the specimens positive for G. Among them, MLG-B-hn01 Phylogenetic relationship of multilocus genotypes MLGs of Giardia duodenalis assemblage B inferred by the maximum likelihood analysis of concatenated tpigdh and bg nucleotide sequences using genetic distances calculated by the general time reversible model GTR.
MLGs identified in the present study are in bold. The scale-bar indicates 50 nucleotide substitutions per nucleotides. Data from this study suggests that crab-eating macaques in Hainan, China are commonly infected with E. In this study, the detection rate of E. This is higher than the reported detection rates in NHPs in various countries [ 52535455 ]. Similarly, it is mostly higher than detection rates in studies of E. Many of the studies reporting low detection rates of E.
The present report represents the first one carried out using a large number of laboratory NHPs. Crab-eating macaques are apparently infected with zoonotic E. In this study, all nine E. The remaining genotype, Pongo2, was reported in China for the first time in this study.
This genotype was initially seen in orangutans in Indonesia, indicating that it has the capability to infect a broad range of NHPs [ 53 ]. Laboratory crab-eating macaques are also apparently common hosts of G. In this study, the detection rate of G. This confirms the prevalence of this pathogen in NHPs in various countries [ 36376364 ] and different areas within China [ 34353844505765 ].
The very high detection rate of G. To date, assemblages A, B and E of G. Among them, assemblage B is the most common genotype in different species of NHPs, including various monkeys, lemurs, gibbons, chimpanzees and gorillas [ 343637385057636465 ]. It is also common in humans in both developing and industrialized countries, and is more common than the other major human-pathogenic genotype, assemblage A [ 21228 ].
In this study, assemblage B was the only G. This could have been due to the confined nature of animals in the facility, which limits the introduction of new G. Nevertheless, a high genetic heterogeneity of assemblage B was seen in animals in the laboratory facility, as revealed by subtype analysis at three genetic loci. The zoonotic potential of G. Of the eight subtypes detected at the tpi locus, Monkey Time 69, B-sh01 JX and B6 GU have been previously found in Monkey Time 69 [ 2868 ].
Likewise, among the four known bg subtypes, B-Egyh8 MG has been previously found in humans [ 69 ]. Therefore, many of the known subtypes of G. Nevertheless, there appears to be some host segregation within assemblage B of G. In contrast, most of other MLGs were genetically related to assemblage B isolates in pig-tailed macaques, rhesus macaques, golden monkeys, yellow baboons and green monkeys, all common Old-World monkeys. They were different from MLGs in ring-tailed lemurs, which are natives of the island nation Madagascar and evolved independently from monkeys and apes.
In this study, we have shown a frequent occurrence and high genetic diversity E. Most of the E. Additional genetic characterizations of these pathogens at other genetic loci, including more conservative ones for G. Measures should be implemented at the commercial facility to reduce the transmission of enteric parasites.
The data supporting the conclusions of this article are included within the article. Unique sequences generated in this study were submitted to the GenBank database under the accession numbers MK—MK Microsporidia as emerging pathogens and the implication for public health: a year study on HIV-positive and -negative patients.
Int J Parasitol. Feng Y, Xiao L. Zoonotic potential and molecular epidemiology of Giardia species and giardiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. Giardiasis surveillance— United States, — Identification and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi among human immunodeficiency virus infected patients. J Infect Public Health.
Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. Acta Trop. Identification and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in China. J Clin Microbiol. Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks—an update — Water Res. Baldursson S, Karanis P. Teased by Chevy in and officially released again inCOPO Camaros had made their appearance and ready to raise some havoc in this Millenium.
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