Redeemer Of Souls 9. Blood Wisdom Of The Crone Final Parade Witchhammer originally reunited in and though they released their second album inthat album was originally recorded in Rumors flew around the internet for years about a new album with nothing surfacing until In the band brought in vocalist Thomas Arntzen Dahl, who was to be a temporary replacement for live show, but is now the permanent vocalist for Witchhammer.
This threw me for a bit of a loop when Headman - Witchhammer (4) - Chapter 3: In Serenity And Awe (CD first listened to this CD. It's always difficult replacing a singer in a band, especially a charismatic singer that gives the band character. However, by the second spin, I was already beginning to enjoy this new release more and forgetting the differences in the vocals. Musically, the band doesn't stray far from the sound they developed on those first two albums. However, with "Chapter 3: In Serenity and Awe" Witchhammer seem to be moving closer to traditional heavy metal with less thrash metal influences, though there are still some present, such as in "Headman".
I'd basically describe the album as power metal, but this usually brings thoughts of keyboards and dungeons and dragon concepts. That is certainly not the case whatsoever. This is real, guitar-driven, power metal! Truly a bizarre story, that is thoroughly infused into the music. As such, the music seems a bit more dramatic and almost progressive, not unlike some of the concept albums from Grave Digger. A song like "Hate" or the dynamic "In Serenity and Awe" certainly have a lot in common with the German metal mongers.
I assume this track will only be available on this special release party edition of the CD. The booklet is also autographed by the entire band. I can't really say if "Chapter 3: In Serenity and Awe" tops the band's first two albums, but it's certainly a solid heavy metal release nonetheless. Compared with language changes in synchronic state, language changes observable in pre and post state are far larger and cannot be neglected. The relation between synchronic state of the language and time duration stands this way.
Some scholars say that even in one of the most elaborating research fields, like in mathematics, logarithm calculates the nth decimal place and omits smaller decimals. Although Saussure advocated the significance of spoken languages as the main research subject of linguistics, his view of this simplification is deeply rooted in his image of the language as static and fixed state of written languages. Consequently, this talented comparative Indo-European linguist did not launch a research on spoken state of the language.
While the written language exhibits its fixed and uniform states, the spoken language shows its aspects of diversity and dynamism. At the same time, diachronic approach to the language, or historical linguistics, has undergone modifications of research targets and contents.
This may sound too simplified a view, but it has been interpreted that Saussure simplified his explanations to meet the situations of his university lectures.
Foundation of Diachronic Phonology 3. This does not necessarily mean that phonetic changes are the only observable diachronic facts. In addition, Saussure treats every issue which has no direct relationship with language system as external factors. Linguistic signs consist of the connections of sound and meaning, and system is formed due to competing relational network of each sign.
These phonemes form a certain system. This is where diachronic phonology was founded. Diachronic Phonology as an Explanatory Science 4. Linguists in the 19th century found the regularity of sound changes and excitedly named them sound laws, but they never went further to try to explain the nature of the sound changes, but rather their interests oriented towards comparative linguistics.
His idea was not totally novel, but was not recognized widely yet. In Japan inHideyo Arisaka in his doctoral dissertation Phonology explained the factors of phonological changes with abundant data. Regarding the former category, Arisaka mentions that human desires have something to do with phonological changes. Those desires can be divided into desires to make expressing measures easier and desires to make pronunciation clearer. Both desires function, in fact, contrarily: e.
What makes the issue complicated is related to the fact that the contradicting desires work at the same time to force the language to change. Language changes are affected by those contradicting forces. The similar contradicting phenomenon can be seen in the issue of language differentiation and integration. Each phoneme has its own range, or scope of coverage; among the ranges of each phoneme, safety zones exist.
If one phoneme moves beyond its safety zone, confusion, or mixing-up, occurs. That is why each phoneme should be pronounced within its range. Under the circumstances, one phoneme moves; its movement influences other phonemes. One phoneme pushes others and others try to pull it back.
This is why system change occurs. Therefore, the existence of the range and safety zone of each phoneme seems controversial; however, we can find some interesting remarks on the reason why certain phonemes move. Another explanation has something to do with asymmetrical structure of human speech organs.
Unlike structural linguistic view that considers human speech organs to be symmetric, the frontal area of the mouth is wider, while the rear area becomes narrower. In addition, the front part of the tongue moves delicately, while the back part works rather dully. Some say that the asymmetrical structure of human speech organs also affects the phonological changes.
In general, the changes in standard language are greatly influenced by conservatism of the written language, while dialects in rural regions have less direct connection with the formalism of the written language and have lesser forces to prevent the spoken language from changing.
Dialects spoken in a large urban area, where the standard language is prevailed, are affected by migration of people from different regions and thus a variety of elements are mingled and different dialects coexist. It is a matter of vogue and popularity whether a certain dialect survives or not. The old form and the new form coexist; the one which follows the fashion of the era will survive. The issue of language change is complicated. Saussure avoided mentioning whether the system is involved in phonetic changes or not in his Course; consequently, this leads to the question whether the distinction between synchrony and diachrony is possible or not in practical linguistic researches.
The question is still unanswered. However, the fundamental question left for us is quite fascinating and attractive to the present-day linguists. Acknowledgement I would like to express my deep appreciation to Dr.
Katsunori Fujioka for his time and efforts to translate this paper, originally written in Japanese, into English. Katsunori Fujioka is a professor at Ehime University and his major research interests include contrastive linguistics, cognitive linguistics and English education. Structural reversal between written and spoken languages in Japanese.
Written and spoken languages have traditionally been thought as distinguished from each other simply by the medium used. But at the same time it has been also pointed out that this distinction sometimes overlaps with stylistic distinction e.
Lyons More recently the Album) idea that they should be distinguished synthetically using various viewpoints has become widespread e. Chafe ; Tannen According to this idea, written and spoken languages are best delineated using various interrelated parameters including structure, strategy, and content besides medium as a matter of degree on a continuum.
Prototypical written language conveys general knowledge to distant receivers by a complex and dense text structure, whereas prototypical spoken language, consisting of a simple and fragmented structure of sound, fits well with conveying personal experiences in on-line multi-modal interaction. Quite contrary to this common idea structural aspect, inter aliaModern Japanese spoken language often disprefers simpler structures and prefers more complex structures.
Based on this characterization, we shall discuss the theoretical impact that structural reversal has on research regarding "written and spoken languages," and "grammar and communication" in Section 4.
Conform acestei idei, limbajul scris, respectiv cel oral, este cel mai bine circumscris 1 Professor, Faculty of Intercultural Studies, Kobe University, Japan. Main topic of research: grammar in communication. Introduction Written and spoken languages have traditionally been thought as distinguished from each other simply by the medium used i. This idea is supported by observations including the fact that some ritual speaking styles have features of written language, whereas written text such as internet chat and mobile mail deserve to be termed spoken language.
According to this idea, written and spoken languages are best delineated using various parameters including structure, strategy, Album) content besides medium as a matter of degree on a continuum. Based on this characterization, we shall discuss the theoretical impact that structural reversal has on research of regarding "written and spoken languages," and "grammar and communication" in Section 4.
Structural reversal in Modern Japanese As Clancy argues, there are many cases where Modern Japanese conforms to the common view that written language prefers complex structures and spoken language simple fragmented ones.
An example of this is shown in 1 below. Gogo-ni furi-dashi-ta ame-wa, sonoato yuki-ni na-tta. It changed to snow afterwards. Example 1a expresses these events using a single sentence consisting of a main clause and a subordinate clause, whereas example 1b expresses this by a juxtaposition of two sentences. This means that the structure of 1a is more complex and less fragmental than that of 1b. Spoken language, especially that in everyday conversation of a casual style, dislikes 1abut not 1b in particular.
Compared with 1a1b is more common in spoken language, which means that written language prefers complex structures and spoken language simple fragmental structures. Nevertheless, this idea is not always true, and spoken language may dislike simple fragmental structures as well.
See example 2 below. Juumannin-no a hundred thousand people-GEN kaidashi go shopping- hitode-demo crowd-even asa-kara morning-ABL - desu -ka. Sore-demo asa-kara crowd that-even morning-ABL kaidashi -desu -ka. Oh, you are still going shopping to the market?! Example 2a asks this with a compressed sentence, whereas example 2b asks this using two juxtaposed sentences, meaning that the structure of 2a is more complex and less fragmental than that of 2b.
The common view introduced above therefore expects that written language prefers 2aand spoken language 2b. But this expectation is actually incorrect. Spoken language dislikes simple 2b and prefers complex 2a. Only in more written-like situations 2b can be observed. For example, 2b is natural as an instance of advertising copy as it might appear in a promotional poster for an delivery-service company announcing that customers can enjoy fresh food anytime at their houses.
Against the background of crowded market, 2b could be a natural copywriting phrase. The example 2b has the anaphora sore i. This may give us the impression that 2b is close to a so-called left-dislocated sentences such as the Italian sentence in 3.
By contrast, 2b usually has an intonation break between juumannin-no hitode i. Crowd of a hundred thousand people and the remainder. It is disliked in conversation and appears only in more written-like situations.
In order to clarify the difference between the phenomenon we are dealing with and left-dislocation, we shall provide examples 4where anaphora does not appear. Shuushoku dooyatte kimerundesu-ka? Dooyatte kimerundesu-ka?
How do you come to a decision about it? In terms of structure, 4a is more complex and 4b is more fragmental and simple. Therefore, it may be anticipated that 4a would be preferred as written language and 4b as spoken language.
However this assessment does not agree with the reality. The spoken language disprefers simpler structures 4b and prefers complex ones 4a. For example, if the situation is envisioned as a school club member asking this question of an upper classman, 4a would be the natural question and 4b unnatural.
This unnaturalness is caused because that 4b seems like written language, such as one might see in the title of a featured article in an issue of a magazine geared towards the young. Some further examples of the above follow. In the following, 5b has been taken from the advertisement of a Japanese-style hotel, and contains the anaphora sore i. Sore-wa isogashiku nichijou-o refuse-even protect-want-thing that-TOP busily each day-ACC sugosu otona-tachi-ga kokoroshizukani kyuusokusur-tame-no basho-to jikan.
That [thing] is a place and time for the quiet relaxation of adults who spend each day busily. The following two examples 6 and 7 do not contain the anaphora sore i. It is Yoshitomo Nara, famed for his paintings of girls with up-angled eyes and dogs etc.
Kanazawa nijuuisseeki bijutsukan-no gogorokuji. There is a candidate recommended by the ruling party, yet some of the LDP Diet members are backing another candidate, [leading to] a split party ticket. Does the traditional belief that written language is complicated in structure and spoken language is fragmental and simple in structure not apply to Modern Japanese?
Observations Unlike the standard example of 1the examples of structural reversal 24 - 7 possess three unique characteristics. The first characteristic is a structural characteristic. In all the b examples of 24 — 7among the short fragmental sentences, those in a prior position end with a noun phrase. Tatoeba nijuuichinichi-no miyazakiken chijisen.
Tatoeba for example election-COP nijuuichinichi-no miyazakiken chijisen-dearu. If the noun phrase is followed by other phrases, structural reversal will no longer be present. The second characteristic is a semantic characteristic. Rather than saying that the fragment sentences in b of 24 — 7 by themselves transmit a completed message, it is more accurate to say they set the circumstances for the following material or introduce the main topic.
Like the first characteristic, this second point is also necessary for structural reversal. Let us consider the case of a father explaining to his child about whales in front of the whale tank at an aquarium. Kujira-wa honyuurui-de, bonyuu-de kosodateosuru-ndayo. Kujira-wa honyuurui. Bonyuu-de kosodateosuru-ndayo. The mother whale raises her offspring by her milk.
However, 9a expresses this within a single sentence, while 9b employs a fragment sentence. As an example of a realistic spoken expression, 9a is more natural than 9b.
The example of 9b containing a fragment sentence seems like an example of television narration: it is fully a natural expression if used outside of the spoken language, yet as a realistic spoken expression it lacks naturalness. This is precisely structural reversal, which disprefers fragmentariness in spoken expressions.
This will be illustrated with 9c. Gyorui zukan-ni-wa notte-nai-yo. In 9c the statement that whales are mammals is not a background explanation given about whales i. Thus, if fragment sentences neither set the circumstances for the following statements nor introduce a man topic, the phenomenon in question does not arise.
The third characteristic is a pragmatic characteristic. The b examples of 24 — 7 are all natural as written expression, as already noted. This naturalness is particularly marked in non-dialogic written expressions. For example, as already mentioned 2b4band 5b are natural in a mass-communicative situation as written copy in an advertisement, in which one person is addressing an unknown number of persons. In the same manner, 6b and 7b are natural as journalistic or commentarial remarks in which one person addresses an unknown number of persons, and also is part of mass-communication.
Like the first two characteristics, the third characteristic is also indispensable for the existence of the phenomenon in question. Yatto tor-e-ta kyuuka-dakedo, doko ikoo? Yatto tor-e-ta kyuuka.
Doko ikoo? Where shall [I, we] go? Nevertheless, 10b is not always natural as written language. Appearing in a strongly dialogic medium such as a letter 10b would predictably be unnatural. It is only natural in a monologic environment such as a diary.
In other words, 10b is dispreferred as spoken language not for the simple reason that it is an expression of written language, but because it does not take the form of a dialogue with another. Based on the above structural, semantic, and pragmatic observations, we can propose the following 11 principle known hereinafter as Fragment Sentence Restriction.
By affirming Fragment Sentence Restriction 11we can explain more than just the unnaturalness of the b examples of 24 - 7 as spoken language. Let us examine In terms of Fragment Sentence Restriction 1112b would seem more likely than 12a to be considered unnatural as a daily conversational expression.
And actually 12b can only be thought of as a theatrical expression with a sort of eloquence. Naturally, when the speaker has a strong feeling this kind of theatrical expression can be motivational in everyday conversation.
For example, as in sorede keesu-o ka-ttara, nanto hassen-en! Grammar of spoken language and that of written language In this paper we have observed structural reversal in Modern Japanese, a phenomenon that does not obey the traditional view of the structural difference between spoken and written languages wherein spoken language has a simpler and more fragmented structure than written language does.
We then pointed out its formal, semantic, and pragmatic characteristics. As a typically agglutinative head-final language, Modern Japanese usually has various interpersonal elements at the end of sentences. The formal characteristics that structural reversal occurs only in fragment sentences indicates that structural reversal is concerned by nature with the necessity of interpersonal elements. As was noted above as the second characteristics, structural reversal occurs not in fragment sentences which relate events but in fragment sentences that occur simply as a preparation i.
At first sight, it may seem a matter of course that the context of preparation unnecessitates interpersonal elements and makes fragment sentences natural. Structural reversal tells us that this reasoning is actually correct only for written language and does not hold true for spoken language.
Spoken language, especially dialogic spoken language as was pointed out as the third characteristics, requires interpersonal elements in the context of preparation all the more, because that context lacks a complete message directed from the speaker to the listeners, and makes fragment sentences unnatural.
This is what we have seen above as Fragment Sentence Restriction. Structural reversal reflects the difference in grammar between spoken language and written language in the manner that Fragment Sentence Restriction holds in dialogic spoken language and does not hold in written language. In spoken language, a sentence must satisfy at least one of the following conditions, as a spoken unit: i it must have interpersonal elements, and ii it must have some complete message, neither of which condition is satisfied by fragment sentence in the preparatory context.
Spoken language prefers complex structures not because they are complex, and written language prefers simple structures not because they are simple. Therefore we can conclude that structural reversal does not overthrow the general validity of the traditional view that spoken language prefers simpler structures and written language more complex ones. Structural reversal, however, indicates at the same time that the grammatical discrepancy between spoken and written languages is much more common than it has been thought to be.
If we adopt the Fragment Sentence Restriction that regulates fragment sentences within preparatory contexts like situation-settings and topicintroducing in dialogic spoken language, we must admit the strong interconnectedness between grammar and communication that enables the combination of formal, semantic, and pragmatic characteristics in this restriction.
Chafe, Wallace L. Clancy, Patricia M. Duranti, Alessandro, and Elinor Ochs. Lyons, John. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sadanobu, Toshiyuki and Hiroko Sawada. Tannen, Deborah. Norwood, NJ. There are Confucius Institutes and more than Confucius Classrooms in countries now since the first Confucius Institute was set up in The registered number of students learning Chinese in the Confucius Institute is over 50 million.
Chinese became the hot language around the world in recent years; meanwhile, the Confucius Institutes encountered some problems in teaching Chinese. The case study sample is from the analysis of teaching mold applied in the beginner group in the Confucius Institute of Babes-Bolyai University in Romania. The analysis presents the advantages of the task-based Chinese teaching mold focused on the introduction of Chinese culture and civilization; in addition, it emphasizes the importance of the first task-based Chinese teaching mold 1 2 Feng Shaozhong is the Associate professor MA of International school in Zhejiang University of Science Technology, Hangzhou, China.
The registered number of students learning Chinese in the Confucius Institute hereafter referred to as CI is over 50 million. Therefore this paper will try to illustrate the Chinese teaching mold matched the CI teaching programme based on the experience of the CI in Babes-Bolyai University in the context of Cross-Culture Communication.
Then people can obtain the standard to judge the significance5. However there is a quite clear definition about the meaning of a word. According to the theory, you can really master the meaning of a word only if you are observing the word carefully when it is used. So the best way to learn a language is to use it as much as possible, to learn by using rather than to input blindly. The following Chinese teaching molds are designed for beginner based on the theory above-mentioned: 3 4 5 6 7 Ludwig Wittgenstein,Philosophical Investigations,translated by G.
Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, It has been proved that reciting can improve the effectiveness of language learning. It is difficult to implement it in CI. As a result of above facts, we need to design a specific teaching mold based on the particularity of CI teaching which not only can exert the advantage of reciting, but also be able to attract the students.
During the process of teaching text, after the explanation of relevant language points, firstly the teacher should lead the students to read the text; secondly to divide the students into different groups and let them take turns to exchange the dialogue role. In this step, the teacher should pay attention to the key words explanation. At the same time such explanation have to be clear and accurate in a short time to make sure all of the students will be able to have a understandable practice later.
After the students are familiar with the text, the second task can be issued on which everyone should ask five questions to your partner and also answer the questions made by your partner. Because a large number of memories practice and repeated mechanical drills will make the students fear and boring easily.
The students will be able to put themselves into the real context by putting forward questions according to the text content. These approaches benefit a lot on motivating the students to learn and alleviating the boring caused by the lack of real context. Step III Ask the students to use real-life material to adapt the dialogue by imitating the sentence pattern of the text. Now the teacher can give the reciting assignment, ask the students to recite at home.
When they are reciting, they can consult this paper anytime which is helpful to relieve the reciting stress. In the context of inadequacy of weekly teaching hours in CI, to grasp the text contents slowly and steadily is much more meaningful than to finish the teaching work in hurry, and also more effective.
If the same statement is spoken by the persons in different ages and from the other profession, there will be some difference on the intonation, tone, speed and so on.
So the teacher can use different way to perform the same word, statement or dialogue, ask the students to observe carefully and then to tell the difference. After they do more repetition, the teacher should encourage them to imitate the manner of speaking. After that, the teacher can ask the other two students to do the similar dialogue just like the teacher and the first student did before. Compared to answer, how to make a question is much more important in the language communication.
If answer is considered as a kind of passive communication, asking a question means you take the initiative. Corporation Mold First to distribute each student one card on which there is a radical and a corresponding single character, pinyin and so on. As a result, in the ending of this corporation, everyone should be able to master all of the radicals. In fact, the corporation mold is useful to alleviate the individual pressure in the social environment and is also good to cultivate the interpersonal relationship.
It sets study groups as basic units which enables the learners to participate in the teaching activities in the greatest range and depth.
This approach can be also applied to teach pinyin. Based on this theory, there are similarities among all of the languages and cultures in the world. Therefore, teachers in CI should roughly comprehend the language, the culture of the appointed country in advance. The form of life decides the performance of a language, and language reflects every unique form of life.
Language teaching will not exist apart from the culture teaching. Therefore the relationship between them is complementary. It pays more attention to parataxis and word order. In fact this feature of Chinese language reflects the logic of Chinese cogitation, being different with the other nations which are exactly caused by different cultural background.
To imagine Chinese means to imagine Chinese culture. Exploration from word order to Chinese cogitation is the one of the aspect about culture; analyzing the different cogitation is the first step to do the cross-culture communication; Research on the cause of Chinese cogitation way from a historical point of view is a way to learn history. Only the closely integration of language teaching and culture teaching can actually attract more Chinese learner and to master the language. Secondly, show some paper-cut works to the students such as Double Happiness and a variety of small animals.
Thirdly, ask them to try at home by themselves. Since all of the paper-cut templates distributed to the students are a little complicated, especially on how to fold the paper, the students have to try several times before they get it which will stimulate their curiosity about the art of paper-cut, whether successful or not. This approach can also be applied in the calligraphy course.
Before the calligraphy course, to give each student a Chinese name which should be wrote down on the Rice paper with writing brush. This principle is especially important to the Chinese teaching in CI. According to the Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve, it starts to forget immediately after learning and will be very quickly in the initial time.
It seems reviewing is more necessary than commencing a new lesson for the particularity of Chinese teaching in CI. Homework is also another effective method to review. However from another point of view, the effect of homework such as dictation in CI is not only to consolidate the learning outcomes, but also is to strengthen the cohesion.
Dictation can strengthen ties between the students and the group; and collaboration provides a platform for the students to get familiar with each other which are helpful for the teacher more smoothly to carry out teaching activity in class. The thing to note is the amount and difficulty of homework should be moderate since the function of it is to strengthen the cohesion.
Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations,translated by G. Starting from the well-known scene of Genji monogatari, Zeami and later Mishima would add, through a process of hypertextual reconfiguration, new valences and dimensions to the nature of the originary model, transformations which we focus upon on this study.
Major research interests: Literary criticism, Japanese Literature. Besides its historical value, the novel exerted considerable influence on the evolution of Japanese literature, as well as of its art and culture, in general.
A great source of inspiration, worshipped by entire generations of literates, a reference cultural model, Genji monogatari is an epic work that generated a series of hypertextual relations with the Japanese literature, which resorted to the primary text in an either direct or polemical manner. Genji monogatari left a enduring mark upon the entire following Japanese literature1. The respective scene would form the poetic core of dramatic texts published much later but resorting, all, to the model of Genji monogatari.
Drawing upon the well-known scene from Genji monogatari, both Zeami and, later, Mishima would add, in a process of hypertextual reconfiguration, new valences and dimensions to the nature of the originary model.
Our study tries to analyze these changes. It was the basic model they followed, learnt from, but also criticized, when trying to reinterprete the canon in order to elaborate new models, more Album) to the austere contemporary taste. Genette analyzes the way in which certain literary genres Album) somehow out of fashion, but are later resumed within the literary circuit and reshaped, either by parody transposition stylistiqueor by serious transposition transposition serieuse.
The farce imitates in a foul manner, by parody or pastiche, a model the audience could easily recognize, thus provoking laughter and relief among viewers. The theme of Spirit Possession, derived from Genji monogatari, Album), is such an example. It is during that strange time that takes place the ceremony of induction in the Kamo temple of the great priestess, the daughter of empress Kokiden.
The ceremony was organized in accordance with the austere shinto tradition and was completed by a procession accompanying the great priestess to the Ise temple. Aoi falls ill and we are given the suggestion that her body was possessed by a malign spirit.
The accused lady herself was feeling as if no longer self-controlled. Her clothes seemed imbued with the odor of stick burnt by priests who tried to exorcise Aoi, an odor which lingered in spite of all attempts to wash her hair or change her clothes.
Enlarging the hermeneutic perspective, Doris G. Often endowed with ritualic value, aggression, or the desire to own and possess, acquired various dimensions in the Heian period. As Doris G. Bargen explains, aggresion together with the need to express anger in case of failure, as portrayed in Genji monogatari, represents a crucial element of the relation between sexes that antropological studies should take into account, 7 Murasaki Shikibu, The tale of Genji, translated from the japanese by Edward G.
The respective theme was resumed by Murasaki Shikibu, whose artistic conception was already well defined when she started writing the novel. The author resorted to the local traditional spiritual fund, but used a subtle narrative shift in order to re-stage the theme: placed in a privileged epic position, the theme was given purely literary, fictional significations, which overshadowed the originally folkloric signification, while religious, specifically Buddhist connotations highlighted by the appearance of priests also became much more blurred.
Doris G. The theme of mono no ke, which can be read from an antropological, cultural, psychological or gender studies perspective, acquires artistic, poetic dimensions in the novel Genji monogatari. Murasaki Shikibu does not completely erase religious significations from the text, however she subordinates ancestral beliefs to the narrative functions, creating a new epic literary vision.
Nevertheless, Mrs. Murasaki still hints at another, less obvious, spiritual dimension of the novel, underlying great dramatic potential, since Genji has exceptional qualities which make him vulnerable, but also trigger the cathartic process of dramatic sublimation. Zeami does not lay emphasis on the text proper, although he himself draws his inspiration from the classical tradition on adapting certain texts for the plays staged at his school.
The playwright grants the text the secondary function to provide the viewers with certain reference points in the view of grasping the mystery staged. Zeami 9 Bargen, Doris G. The text itself stands apart from the model and the poetic function of the performance fades in favour of the ritualic function. The core of the play consists of an account of life narrated by such a protagonist, a transcendental being who has been to the other world as well as to our world.
We cannot directly see him or hear him talk; we can do that only through a medium, the deuteragonist of the play, who, aptly, is a Buddhist monk. However, in this case, it becomes apparent the author tried to keep the well-known scene as close as possible to the original text of Genji monogatari and thus preserved its character, while he adapted the basic scheme of the play to the given content.
In the second part of the play, shite appears as a furious demon whom the sacred monk Kohijiri tries to exorcise by Buddhist means, after Teruhi, the shaman-woman, failed in doing so. Neither does Genji appear on stage and his absence proves, once more, the shift of dramatic interest towards the ritual of exorcism meant for the malefic spirit. Those spirits return to the living world in the role of shite, because they had faced a problem which remained unsolved before physical death caught them off guard.
The scene of Aoi illustrates the very rare case of a spirit leaving the body of a still-living person in order to pursue another person from the distance. The writer imbues the dialogue with a vague shade of fantastic, making it difficult to distinguish the real and the imaginary. The conversation of the two former lovers highlights the confrontation between the woman abandoned by her lover and the jealousy she feels for the ill wife of her former lover.
The role of waki resorts to the nurse, respectively, to Hikaru himself. XXI, nr. The memory of that love is suggested by the image of yacht sails hallucinatorily looming over the stage. Another notable difference from the two previous texts lies in the presence of Hikaru-Genji, who is given a major role in the developement of the action, as compared to his rather episodical role from the fragment of Genji monogatari or to his actual absence from the drama Aoi no ue.
He appears on stage with his travel suitcase. The nurse tells him about the state of the patient and lets him know that every night an elegantly dressed lady, assumedly from the high society, visits Aoi. They lead a symbolic, poetic conversation. Despite the impression of verosimilitude rendered by the telephone, the hospital roomthe play evolves in a strange supernatural atmosphere, enhanced by the image of a yacht with sails looming over the stage.
The fantastic state lingers all along the course of events. His perplexity seems the only natural thing in this tensioned dramatic moment of confrontation between the two opposing, yet complementary worlds. The psychological turmoil brings forth some kind of split of the spirit, who dualizes, acting at both real and imaginary level. In Aoi no Ue and Aoi, the imitation of a model triggers certain changes that can be pointed out at least at two interpretive levels, both poetic and semantic.
Despite preserving the almost intact original theme, the new writers shift the genre, from epic to dramatic. Readers of the novel Genji monogatari, who came from the elite of the Heian period, were completely different socially from the bushi elite of the Muromachi period. If we define the poeticity in its basic, Aristotelian sense, as representation in verse of human actions distinguished by the 14 Makoto Ueda, p.
Bargen, Doris G. Genette, Gerard, Palimpsestes. Maki, J. Mckinnon, Richard N. The Modernization of Japanese Literature. A Brief Comparative Perspective. This paper views the modernization process of Japanese literature from a comparative perspective.
In the first section, a number of impulses from comparative literature are introduced in order to put the process of literary modernization in Japan into perspective.
Japan was almost as fast when it came to beating the West at its own game of writing realistic literature, at least as far as one researcher, Yamamoto Masahide, is concerned. Yet the research group at the Charles University in Prague, who undertook their comparative study of the modernization of Asian literatures during the 's, also reached the conclusion that Japan had been extremely effective in carrying out literary reform: "When observing the formation of the fundamental conditions underlying the rise of modern literature in Japan from the aspects of their differences in time and differences of analogies with the other societies discussed, it is the overall brevity of the period during which the respective changes took place that appears to be most striking.
That such claims to uniqueness were invalid was, indeed, one conclusion of the Prague research group, which investigated modernizing literature from Japan to Iran and discovered - despite the great geographical distances and such important cultural differences as the presence or absence of a dominant religious tradition such as Islam - more similarities than differences.
Nowhere does the soical prestige of literature decline, on the contrary, it shows a distinct rise, literature, indeed, advancing to the uppermost rung of the cultural ladder; it is proof of the high evaluation of literature as a new and effective means for achieving social progress. Prague: Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences,p. Added Stryper show review.
Added a bio to the AbattoirVengeance Rising page. Updated the Agent Steel bio. Added a short bio to the At War page. Updated some information and reviews on the Balance of Power and Narnia pages. Fixed the big 'ol mistake on the Boanerges page. Thanks to the 30 or so people who emailed me about the mistake. My apologies to the people of Brazil who are apparently offended by the fact that I accidentally listed this Argentina band as Brazillian.
Updated the Anthrax pages. Added a short bio to the Manowar page. Huge CD haul this time 'round. Click below to see the list. Added a picture of the Running Wild - Masquerade wood box.
Added a Heathen's Rage page. Completely reworded the Iron Maiden section, splitting it up into multiple pages and adding new photos. Big - Bump Ahead Mr. Added new logo to the TNT page. Added a bio to the Forbidden page. Big - Lean into It Mr. For some reason the traffic to my site has increased considerably and I have been getting around more emails a day just from readers of my site. I appreciate all the suggestions, trade offers, praise, etc. However, I just have not been able to get to all the mails.
Again, I apologize. Give me some time and I will try to answer them all. Added a new entry to the Hall of Shame. Updated the WANT list. Still need to update the TEXT want list. Hopefully will do that in a few days. I have had several emails about updating my bootleg list.
I will try to get that done ASAP. Revised the Belladonna review. Added a new section called the Hall of Shame. Added a bio to the KIX section. Updated the Want List. Made some changes to the Favorites list, as well as added a list of favorite tribute CDs. Added new photo to Def Leppard.
Updated Pretty Maids - Scream review. Updated my WANT list. Added some bio info on Killjoy. Added a Kiss - Animalize facts page. Added photo to the Loudness page. Re-wrote the Jerusalem - 10 Years After review. A vistior to the site in the Faith or Fear page. Added some information to the Paul Stanley solo facts.
Rewrote the Metallica -Reload review. Finally added a links section. Moved the " favorites " section to it's own page to help the main page download quicker. Added a few new cd reviews. See list below. As usual, new cds marked with.
Megadeth -Still Alive I know vinyl sucks, but a cd copy does not exist. New photos on the ReconBarren Cross and Bloodgood pages. A visitor to the site. Check out Place of Skulls. Updated all the reviews on the Die Happy page as well as added the years of release. Updated the Angelica page, including updating the reviews and adding some photos and graphics. Rebuilt the Alice Cooper page.
Added several new cd reviews. V reviews. Rewrote all the reviews and added a photo to the Neon Cross page. Updated the John Sykes page with a new photo. Should soon have a few more cds to add. Started to build a links page. Should have that up at the next update. Removed the Metal Massacre cds from the compilations page and put them on their own page, since there are so many of them.
Also added a new text only want list. Updated the Anthrax page. Rewrote the 'Stomp ' review as well as added some new photos and other minor changes. Addrd several new cd reviews. Death -Live in L. Lots of cd updates! Also updated the trade and want list. Also fixed a bunch typos and grammar problems from the last update. Thanks to all those who emailed me with the corrections. Small improvement to the Modest Attraction page. Have updated the bootleg page. He will be greatly missed.
Rest in peace, Paul. You will live in our hearts forever. Will eventually get to the rest of their albums. Should have these in the next update. Needless to say, I will honor Chuck's memory, and the memory of the music he created.
Major update to the Stryper section and a minor improvement to the Judas Priest section. Many new discs.
Tales From The Far Side - Bill Frisell - When You Wish Upon A Star (CD, Album), Dont Whisper - Mary (9) - Virginal (Cassette, Album), Jägers Fritz - Kapelle Joe Wiget - Chum Und Los (CD), Intro - The 22nd Letter, Rick Ross - Maybach Royalty (CDr), MagiC CloCK MaCHine - Butcher* / Müller* / van der Schyff* - Way Out Northwest (CD, Album), Various - First Generation Rap - The Old School Vol. 1 (CD), Vikters Urs - Kapelle Joe Wiget - Chum Und Los (CD), Wham Bam Thank You Mam - Mother Earth - You Have Been Watching (CD, Album), Love Odyssey (Love Shines Forever) - T-Connection - Something For The Weekend (CD)